[38] The case of Forza Italia was unprecedented as never before had a large political party been launched by a business corporation. In the election for the Chamber of Deputies, FI scored 23.7% and 137 seats, in those for the Senate 24.0%, without counting Trentino-Alto Adige, whose seats were contested on first-past-the-post basis and which is a left-wing stronghold, due to its alliance with the autonomist South Tyrolean People's Party). È quanto rende noto lo staff del leader azzurro. It took four years until the first party congress was held. Il candidato del PPE sarà Manfred Weber, tedesco della CSU (il partito baverese gemello della CDU di Angela Merkel), già capogruppo del PPE al Parlamento Europeo. Programma Forza Italia e Centrodestra 2018: la questione Europa. In December 1999, Forza Italia gained full membership in the European People's Party,[42] of which Antonio Tajani, the party leader of Forza Italia in the European Parliament, became a Vice President. La lista Europa Verde è costituita principalmente dalla Federazione dei Verdi e da Possibile (il movimento di Civati, uscito dall'esperienza di Liberi e Uguali). As the main ideologic themes of Berlusconism, Orsina identified the myth of the "good" civil society (as opposed to the state apparatus), a "friendly, minimal state" (providing services to citizens rather than regulating their lives), "hypopolitics" (i.e. It has been claimed that Forza Italia had no internal democracy because there was no way of changing the leader of the party from below (although the party's constitution makes it possible). The name is not usually translated into English: Combined result of Forza Italia (17.8%) and, traditional social teaching of the Church, Learn how and when to remove this template message, List of Forza Italia leading members by political origin, ""Forza Italia ha raggiunto quota 400mila iscritti"", "Forza Italia si scioglie, ora è Pdl Berlusconi: "Dal '94 nulla è cambiato, "Oggi nasce il partito del popolo italiano", "Via l'Ici e stretta sulle intercettazioni", "Svolta di Berlusconi, arriva il Pdl: "Forza Italia-An sotto stesso simbolo, "Berlusconi: Forza Italia back and I will be driving it, "Silvio Berlusconi Relaunches Forza Italia on Senate Ousting Vote", "Berlusconi breaks away from Italian government after party splits", "Berlusconi, via alle tre riforme "Facciamo una politica di sinistra, "Fecondazione, divisi i vertici di Forza Italia", "Berlusconi: la Margherita venga con noi moderati", "Pera e la difesa dell' astensione, scontro tra i poli", "Fecondazione, Ruini chiama all' astensione", "The business firm model of party organisation: Cases from Spain and Italy", Italian Socialist Party of Proletarian Unity, Italian Democratic Party of Monarchist Unity, Early 20th-century Italian political parties, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Forza_Italia&oldid=995662516, Articles lacking reliable references from December 2014, Articles needing additional references from November 2014, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. According to Orsina, Berlusconism sanctified "the people" that embodied all virtues while being "betrayed" by the (old) elites, a typical element of populist ideologies. Presidente. Il presidente di Forza Italia Silvio Berlusconi ha nominato il senatore Renato Schifani suo consigliere politico. No members of Forza Italia joined the new government and the party leader was relegated to opposition. I cittadini meritano una Livorno ben più vivibile. Gruppo Forza Italia Berlusconi Presidente-UDC. CON SILVIO. The electoral results of FI in general (Chamber of Deputies) and European Parliament elections since 1994 are shown in the chart below. Il candidato ha aperto un proprio sito per seguirlo e conoscerlo meglio. Again all key ministerial posts were given to Forza Italia members: Interior (Claudio Scajola 2001–2002, Giuseppe Pisanu 2002–2006), Defence (Antonio Martino 2001–2006), Finance (Giulio Tremonti, 2001–2004 and 2005–2006), Industry (Antonio Marzano 2001–2005, Claudio Scajola 2005–2006) and Foreign Affairs (Franco Frattini, 2002–2004). Italy was shaken by a series of corruption scandals known as Tangentopoli and the subsequent police investigation, called Mani pulite. On 21 November 2008 the national council of the party, presided over by Alfredo Biondi and attended by Berlusconi himself, officially decided the dissolution of Forza Italia into The People of Freedom (PdL), whose official foundation took place on 27 March 2009. Forza Italia passa dal 6,2 al 6,4% attuale, anche se resta lontano dai fasti di un tempo. [32], FI's political programme was strongly influenced by the manifesto "In Search of Good Government" (Alla ricerca del buongoverno) authored in late 1993 by Giuliano Urbani who was then a political science professor at Milan's private Bocconi University and an occasional collaborator of Fininvest. [30] To extend its representation in different regions, FI often recruited established politicians of the "old" parties, mainly DC and PSI, who defected to the new party, bringing their local clientele with them. Il Movimento 5 Stelle non fa parte di nessun partito europeo. The party was heavily dependent on the image surrounding Berlusconi's personality. Silvio Berlusconi ha usato parole molto dure e si riferisce ai tanti problemi che ci sono in politica, cercando di restare fuori da queste dinamiche.. Forza Italia's organisation was based on the idea of a "party of the elected people", giving more importance to the whole electorate than to party's members. The core values of Forza Italia were "freedom" and the "centrality of the individual". Non si può parlare dell'uomo più potente del mondo, il dittatore cinese Xi Jinping, senza prima conoscere la struttura politica dentro cui è nata... Scopri come i tuoi dati vengono elaborati, Tra privato e realtà: come funziona la sanità in America, Il battito d’ali di Biden causerà uno tsunami in Serbia, Il muro di gomma dell’Australia respinge l’immigrazione. Pagine nella categoria "Politici di Forza Italia (2013)" Questa categoria contiene le 200 pagine indicate di seguito, su un totale di 291. [4] Chiara Moroni, who explains Forza Italia's ideology as a mixture of liberal, Christian-democratic and social-democratic values (united in the concept of "popular liberalism" in party documents), wrote that "Berlusconi offered to voters liberal values through a populist style" and that "Forza Italia has made the liberal political ideal popular" among voters, so that "it was spread and shared by broad and heterogenous sectors of the Italian population". [36] Several other authors have adopted this comparison,[76][77][78][79] and have labeled Berlusconi as a "political entrepreneur". In particular, it hark back to the social market economy of Röpke, which was conceived in reference to the traditional social teaching of the Church. utilizzato nella campagna elettorale della Democrazia Cristiana In Italia comprende anche l’UDC e il Südtiroler Volkspartei altoatesino. Between 1996 and 1998, the party started to strengthen its organisation under Claudio Scajola, a former Christian Democrat who served as national coordinator of Forza Italia from 1996 to 2001. [4] From a comparative perspective the ideology of Forza Italia has been characterized as liberal conservative[3][51][52][53] (or conservative liberal[54]), national conservative[55] and liberal. With our book on welfare we tackle the needs of the weakest families. The first Berlusconi-led government had a short life and fell in December, when Lega Nord left the coalition, after disagreements over pension reform and the first avviso di garanzia (preliminary notice of an investigation) for Berlusconi, passed by Milan prosecutors. Tra i partiti crescono Lega e Forza Italia, mentre Partito Democratico e Movimento 5 Stelle restano stabili. Sandro Bondi, a leading member of the party, wrote: Forza Italia considers liberal classics as Croce, Sturzo, Hayek and Einaudi as reference authors. Partiti politici italiani: Forza Italia Forza Italia Dopo pochi mesi, è risultato il partito più votato nelle elezioni che portarono alla vittoria del centrodestra e al primo governo Berlusconi. The party was divided basically over ethical (between social conservatives and progressives), economic (between social democrats and some Christian democrats on one side and liberals on the other one) and institutional issues. Il politico torna ad essere “battitore libero” cioè senza appartenere ad un partito politico. Associazione per il buon governo viene costituita, presso lo studio del notaio Roveda a Milano, il 29 giugno 1993 da alcuni noti professionisti, alcuni inseriti nelle aziende controllate da Fininvest, altri comunque vicini al fondatore e proprietario di quest'ultima, Silvio Berlusconi, tra i quali Marcello Dell'Utri, Antonio Martino, Gianfranco Ciaurro, Mario Valducci, Antonio Tajani, Cesare Previti e Giuliano Urbani . [50] In a speech during a party congress in 1998, Berlusconi himself proclaimed: "our liberal vision of the State is perfectly in agreement with the Catholic social teaching". [31] Only slowly it transformed into a mass-membership organisation. Durante la crisi politica agostana che si è appena conclusa con la fiducia al Conte bis, nel caos che si è generato una voce non si è praticamente mai sentita tra i vari leader nostrani: quella di Silvio Berlusconi. Regarding the latter issue, generally speaking, northern party members were staunch proposers of political and fiscal federalism, and autonomy for the Regions (in some parts of Veneto and Lombardy, it was sometimes difficult to distinguish a member of FI from a leghista), while those coming from the South were more cold on the issue. Condividi tramite. Altri candidati provengono dal Movimento per le Autonomie e da tre importanti partiti autonomisti: il Partito Autonomista Trentino Tirolese, la Slovenska Skupnost e la Südtiroler Volkspartei, alleato del centrosinistra che ha però scelto di schierarsi con i suoi parenti europei del Partito Popolare. Il nostro desiderio è quello di trasmettere le conoscenze apprese sui banchi universitari e in ambito professionale, per contribuire al processo di costruzione dell’opinione pubblica e di policy-making nel nostro Paese. In queste ore è arrivata la replica di Forza Italia per mano del suo numero due, Antonio Tajani: "Forza Italia è e rimarrà all'opposizione. However, Berlusconi was highly popular among his party fellows, and it was unlikely he could have been overthrown if such an election had occurred. Governo e opposizione: Lega, M5S, PD, Forza Italia | Scopri di più From its inception, Forza Italia used unconventional means in regards to European politics. Il partito politico Forza Italia è stato ri-fondato nel 2013 da Silvio Berlusconi, riprendendo il nome e il simbolo dello stesso partito attivo tra il 1994 e il 2009. In 2004 European elections, Forza Italia was second place nationally, receiving 20.1% of the vote and returning 16 MEPs. Che cosa sono i due terremoti politici in corso nel M5s e in Forza Italia. Forza Italia si sciolse il 27 marzo 2009, trasformandosi in Popolo delle Libertà. Forza Italia's aim was to attract moderate voters who were "disoriented, political orphans and who risked being unrepresented" (as Berlusconi described them), especially if the Democratic Party of the Left (the direct heirs of the Italian Communist Party) had been able to win the next election and enter in government for the first time since 1947. [87] In December 1999 Forza Italia was finally granted full membership of the European People's Party (EPP).[42]. Per questo – e per un numero considerevole di questioni che analizzeremo – i riverberi della... La società australiana è fortemente multiculturale: come riportato da Sbs, quasi un terzo della popolazione è nata all’estero. In the same year, the party scored well (25.2% of votes) in the European Parliament election of 1999. Eppure Silvio Berlusconi ha dichiarato alla stampa di auspicare una svolta a destra, proponendo un’alleanza con l’ECR (conservatori euroscettici) e con i sovranisti. Its appeal to voters was based on Berlusconi's personality more than on its ideology or programme.[28]. Un nome alternativo sarebbe potuto essere "Bella Ciao". [62], We want a social market economy. [56] Both its Northern strongholds (Lombardy, Veneto) and its Southern strongholds (Sicily, Apulia) were once dominated by the Christian Democracy party, but, while in the South most leading members of Forza Italia are former Christian Democrats, the party was highly influenced also by liberals in the North. Il PPE, primo partito europeo, raccoglie i partiti conservatori e democristiani di tutta Europa. Also Antonio Martino and Giancarlo Galan were formers Liberals, Jas Gawronski was a leading Republican, while Marcello Pera has a Socialist and Radical background. The party regained power in the general election of 2001, gaining 29.4% of the votes with Giorgio La Malfa's tiny Italian Republican Party, in a new coalition called House of Freedoms (CdL) and composed mainly of the National Alliance, Lega Nord, Christian Democratic Centre and United Christian Democrats (the last two parties merged in 2002 to form the Union of Christian and Centre Democrats, UDC). L'addio a Forza Italia dei deputati Carrara, Ravetto e Zanella è la notizia del giorno, politicamente parlando. Silvio Berlusconi non ci stà e punta il dito su quelli che sono i teatrini politici in essere assumendo una linea dura. Nella nuova Forza Italia è confluita la maggioranza degli esponenti del Popolo della Libertà, che si è sciolto il 16 Novembre 2013 successivamente alla scissione del Nuovo Centrodestra. Scelto in un contest aperto al pubblico tra 6 possibili, esibisce il nome "la sinistra". Politica italiana Sondaggi politici elettorali 7 Dicembre 2020 12:14 di Tommaso Coluzzi Additionally, National Alliance leader Gianfranco Fini was appointed Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister from 2004 to 2006, while Roberto Castelli, senior figure of Lega Nord was Justice Minister from 2001 to 2006. In Italia comprende anche l’UDC e … The political scientist Giovanni Orsina has defined Berlusconism, as he terms the ideology of Forza Italia and its leader, as an "emulsion of populism and liberalism", more specifically right-liberalism. Green Deal europeo: il Recovery Fund sarà d’aiuto? [58][59], Forza Italia thus presented itself as a bridge between Catholics and non-Catholics, who have been previously divided in the political system of the First Republic, and "the union of three political-cultural areas: that of liberal and popular Catholicism, that of secular, liberal and republican humanism and that of liberal socialism". VICARIO GELMINI Mariastella VICEPRESIDENTE BALDELLI Simone TESORIERE LAFFRANCO Pietro ALTRI MEMBRI ABRIGNANI Ignazio ANGELUCCI Antonio ARCHI Bruno BERGAMINI Deborah BIANCOFIORE Michaela BIANCONI Maurizio BIASOTTI Sandro BRAMBILLA … I sondaggi politici è un po’ di tempo che lanciano segnali allarmanti per quanto riguarda Forza Italia.Uno in particolare, qualche tempo fa e riservato agli uomini di Berlusconi, aveva fatto capire come in vista delle elezioni europee 2014 il partito rischiasse un clamoroso flop, soprattutto se non ci fosse stato l’ex Cavaliere a guidare la campagna elettorale. However, Berlusconi viewed "the people" as a pluralistic and diverse collection of individuals, not an ethnically, historically and culturally homogeneous unit.[69][70]. [4], In fact the electoral base of Forza Italia was highly heterogeneous and the ideological differences among its voters are explained also by its different regional constituencies: while voters from the North tended to support the original libertarian line of the party, voters from the South tended to be more statist. Its leader was Silvio Berlusconi, four times Prime Minister of Italy.. However Claudio Scajola and most former Christian Democrats supported a more capillary-based organisation, to make participate as much people as possible, and a more collegial, participative and democratic decision-making process. [citation needed], In a 1999 study, political scientists Jonathan Hopkin and Caterina Paolucci likened the organisational model of the party to that of a business firm, describing it as having "a lightweight organisation with the sole basic function of mobilising short-term support at election time". Le parole del leader di Forza Italia Forza Italia (FI; translated to "Forward Italy" or "Let's Go Italy",) was a centre-right political party in Italy with liberal-conservative, Christian-democratic, liberal, social-democratic and populist tendencies. In the 1994 European Parliament election held in June, Forza Italia was placed first nationally, with 30.6% of the vote, electing 27 MEPs. Per essere più precisi, non ha avuto la forza di imporre una decisione già presa dal suo gruppo dirigente; circostanza che in politica è anche peggio. This government which centrist, liberal, with Catholics and reformists, intends to advance with policies that the left-wing promises by word of mouth.[63]. Moreover, the party had thematic departments and regional, provincial or metropolitan coordination boards plus many affiliate clubs (Club Azzurro) all over Italy. Gennaro Giardino, residente a Vetralla, si è definito sempre un portavoce del popolo ed ora lascia il partito di Forza Italia. It is difficult to say to what faction Berlusconi was closer, what is sure is that his political record was a synthesis of all the political tendencies within the party. [31] The new party's campaigning was strongly dependent on Fininvest's TV stations and PR resources. For the current Italian political party launched in 2013, see. XVIII Legislatura (dal 23 marzo 2018) Composizione attuale. This additionally included the widespread distribution of Berlusconi‘s biography, which was titled "An Italian Story" (Una storia italiana). Ma Forza Italia non ha voluto. In June 2001, after the huge success in May elections, Silvio Berlusconi was returned head of the Italian government, the longest-serving cabinet in the history of the Italian republic. [57], Forza Italia claimed to be a fresh new party, with no ties with the last governments of the so-called First Republic, and at the same time to be the heir of the best political traditions of Italy: Christian Democrat Alcide De Gasperi, Social Democrat Giuseppe Saragat, Liberal Luigi Einaudi and Republican Ugo La Malfa were considered as party icons. Malan Lucio. Regional elections in April 2005 were a serious blow for the party, which however remained strong in the northern regions, such as Lombardy and Veneto, and somewhere in the South, where Sicily was a stronghold. the containment of political conflicts, after the hyper-politisation of Italian society during the "First Republic") and the identification of a "new virtuous elite". Sondaggi: ultimi sondaggi politici elettorali oggi. Forza Italia's leader was replaced as Prime Minister by Lamberto Dini, an independent politician who had been the administration's Treasury Minister. A scheme of the internal factions within Forza Italia could be this: Christian democrats and liberal-centrists were undoubtedly the strongest factions within the party, but all four were mainstream for a special issue: for example liberals and liberal-centrists were highly influential over economic policy, Christian democrats led the party over ethical issues (although there was a substantial minority promoting a more progressive outlook), while social democrats had their say in defining the party's policy over labour market reform and, moreover, it is thanks to this group (and to those around Tremonti, he himself a former Socialist) that constitutional reform was at the top of Forza Italia's political agenda. Key posts in the party structure were appointed by Berlusconi or by his delegates. [83] In 2004, ten years after the emergence of the party and during its second term in government, Mark Donovan summarised that this still might be an accurate description. The party's anthem was sung in karaoke fashion at American-style conventions. Il gruppo parlamentare a cui era iscritto, EFDD, con ogni probabilità non... La Lista [64] The party usually gave to its members freedom of conscience on moral issues (and hence a free vote), as in the case of the referendum on stem-cell research,[65] but leading members of the party, including Silvio Berlusconi,[66] Giulio Tremonti and Marcello Pera[67] (who is himself non-Catholic, although friend of Pope Benedict XVI), spoke in favour of "abstention" (as asked by the Catholic Church,[68] to not surpass the 50% of turnout needed for making the referendum legally binding). It was the only party to use the word "President" in its logo. [41] In 1995, Forza Europa merged with the European Democratic Alliance to form the Union for Europe group alongside the Rally for the Republic of France and Fianna Fáil of Ireland. While Pera campaigned hard for the success of the boycott along with most FI members, both Berlusconi and Tremonti explicitly said that "abstention" was their personal opinion, not the official one of the party. Berlusconi himself was a close friend of Bettino Craxi, leader of the PSI, in spite of his own Christian Democratic and Liberal background (Berlusconi was a DC activist in occasion of the 1948 general election). This was the line of the early founders of the party, notably Marcello Dell'Utri and Antonio Martino. Vicepresidente Vicario. [21], Alessandro Campi has written that "the political culture of Forza Italia – a curious and, on many respects, untold mixture of "liberalism" and "democratic populism" – deserves to be described as an "anti-ideological ideology", [...] as a synthesis or fusion of very diverse political families and traditions (from liberal Catholicism to social conservatism, from reformist socialism to economic liberalism), kept together by the mobilizing appeal to "freedom"". [...] Freedom is not graciously conceded by the State, because it comes before it. Romani, Paolo/Forza Italia. [80][81][82], Given the perceived use of government responsibility to advance Berlusconi's personal and Fininvest's business interests during the period of Forza Italia-led government, the political scientist Patrick McCarthy in 1995 proposed to describe Forza Italia as a "clan" rather than a reform-minded political party. The party used TV advertising extensively, although this was slightly restricted following 2000 by a law passed by the centre-left majority of the time. Anche perché alla fine Forza Italia è stata un po’ sedotta e poi abbandonata da Matteo Salvini. Its leader was Silvio Berlusconi, four times Prime Minister of Italy. He asserted that the party (and the centre-right camp) was only coherent and disciplined when it came to questions that strongly concerned Berlusconi, while he allowed great liberties to the diverse factions in other issues that did not concern his personal interests.[84]. The citizen is sovereign. [45] Finally, on 8 February, Berlusconi and Fini agreed to form a joint list under the banner of "The People of Freedom", allied with Lega Nord. [47] The modern-day Forza Italia was launched on 18 September 2013[48] and the PdL was dissolved into the new party on 16 November 2013. Forza Italia in calo (6,6%) Prosegue la discesa di Forza Italia. Alle elezioni del marzo 2018 gli azzurri con il 14% sono finiti alle spalle della Lega, con gli ultimi sondaggi che andrebbero ad attestare Forza Italia ancora più in basso e superata anche da Fratelli d’Italia. Forza Italia fa il pieno di "mancette" in manovra Salvini festeggia misure per 10 miliardi ottenute dal centrodestra, ma chi realmente ne beneficia è il collaborativo partito del Cav. Also some former Liberals, due to their role of unifiers of Italy in the 19th century, were more centralist. Il declino di Forza Italia. However, the party obtained substantial successes in the 1995 Italian regional elections, both in the North (winning in Piedmont, Lombardy and Veneto) and the South (Campania, Apulia and Calabria). The party included also non-Catholic members, but they were a minority, and it was less secular in its policies than Christian Democratic Union of Germany. Within the party there was a long debate over organisation. Many were former Liberals (PLI), Republicans (PRI) and Social Democrats (PSDI): Alfredo Biondi (president of Forza Italia's national council) and Raffaele Costa, both former PLI leaders, and former PSDI leader Carlo Vizzini were later MPs for Forza Italia. Vecchi alleati di Rivoluzione Cristiana ed Energie per l’Italia si accodano – manca però Stefano Parisi. Scopri come i tuoi dati vengono elaborati. Foreign Minister, Cesare Previti Defence Minister, Alfredo Biondi Justice Minister and Giulio Tremonti (at the time an independent member of Parliament) Finance Minister. For this, we believe concretely in the individual [...]. It is a natural right, which belongs to us as we are human beings and it itself rather lays the foundations of the State. Forza Italia[nb 1] (FI; translated to "Forward Italy"[2][9][10][11][12][13] or "Let's Go Italy",[14][15][16][17]) was a centre-right[8] political party in Italy with liberal-conservative,[2][3][18][19] Christian-democratic,[4][8][20] liberal,[4][8][20][21] social-democratic[4] and populist[5][6][7] tendencies. Party national-level conventions did not have normally elections to choose the party leadership (although the national congress elected some members of the national council), and they seemed to be more like events arranged for propaganda purposes. Movimento Politico Forza Italia. Forza Italia si è data molto da fare con le alleanze elettorali: nelle sue liste candiderà membri dell’Unione di Centro, del Cantiere Popolare e di IDeA. In... Il Coronavirus ha messo in ginocchio i sistemi sanitari di tutto il mondo: interi ospedali sono sovraffollati, spesso carenti in fondi e personale. Continuando ad analizzare gli ultimi sondaggi politici vediamo poi la situazione dei partiti minori. Forza Italia si stringe al fianco di Denis. The party did not join an existing group in the European Parliament, instead forming the new group Forza Europa, composed entirely of Forza Italia MEPs.[41]. [27] The party's organisation and ideology depended heavily on its leader. [50], The "Secular Creed", that was also the preamble to the party's constitution, described the party in this way: .mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}, Forza Italia is a liberal party although not an elitist one, indeed a popular liberal-democratic party; it is a Catholic party although not a confessional one; it is a secular party, although not an intolerant and secularist one; it is a national party, although not a centralist one. Negli... Dalle presidenziali statunitensi derivano effetti su scala globale. [35][36][37] In her 2001 study of the party, political scientist Emanuela Poli described Forza Italia as "a mere diversification of Fininvest in the political market". According to him, in the initial phase, both elements were represented about equally, only after 2000 pro-market liberal positions had receded in favour of more socially conservative ones. [60][third-party source needed]. Il PPE, primo partito europeo, raccoglie i partiti conservatori e democristiani di tutta Europa. Di Battista: «Occorre il politometro per far luce sui patrimoni dei politici» The ideology of the party ranged from libertarianism to social democracy (often referred to as "liberal socialism" in Italy), including elements of the Catholic social teaching and the social market economy. The concepts of a good civil society and hypopolitics were both liberal and populist; while the minimal state was a mainly liberal idea and the new virtuous elite a chiefly populist one. Even some former Communists were leading members of the party, such as national party coordinator Sandro Bondi and Ferdinando Adornato. It is decidedly a left-wing policy.

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